State Defense Committee Order 7161 of December 16, 1944 instructed to intern all able-bodied Germans of ages 17–45 (men) and 18-30 (women) residing within the territories of Romania (67,332 persons), Hungary (31,920 persons), Yugoslavia (12,579 persons), which were under the control of the Red Army. Prohibition of forced labor is one of the fundamental principles of labor law in Russian Federation. Many other nationalities were swept up in similar operations, including but not exclusive to: Latvians, Estonians, Romanians, Greeks, Afghans, and Iranians. The Russian prison system is to reintroduce forced labor in 2017, the TASS news agency reported Tuesday. [47], The Soviet Union exploited the technical expertise of the German specialists who were resident in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany as well as POWs held in the USSR. Oldenbourg 2000. had used forced labour of people in the occupied territories since the beginning of World War II, a massive project of enslaving the populations of Eastern European countries to use as forced labour in German factories and agricultural facilities, Chief Directorate for Prisoners of War and Internee Affairs, Kulturstiftung der deutschen Vertriebenen, German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Forced labor of Germans after World War II, The Soviet Union and the western allies employed German POW labor up until 1949, Forced labour under German rule during World War II, Forced labor of Hungarians in the Soviet Union, Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR, Flight and expulsion of Germans from Romania during and after World War II, Forced labor in Germany during World War II, La recherche des Allemands prisonniers ou portés disparus au cours de la Seconde Guerre mondial, The Expulsion of 'German' Communities from Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War, Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees, European University Institute, Florence. The Gulag or GULAG (Russian: ГУЛАГ; acronym for Glavnoe upravlenie lagerei, Главное управление лагерей, 'Main Directorate of Camps') was the government agency in charge of the Soviet network of forced labor camps set up by order of Vladimir Lenin, reaching its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the early 1950s. Figures do not include German civilians interned in the Kaliningrad Oblast, the former East Prussia. Work days were usually 10–14 hours long and camps were often marked by unsafe work conditions, insufficient food and clothing, and limited access to medical care. A selected few remained in the USSR until the early 1950s including German scientists who worked in the Soviet Union on the development of ballistic missiles, Helmut Gröttrup was among this group. Overall they estimated 40,000 persons perished. Russia: Labor force, million people: For that indicator, we provide data for Russia from 1990 to 2020. These categories in the Red Cross figures for deportees are also listed above in the Russian archive statistics. One end result was what was known as the Kolkhoz, a contraction of the Russian for "collective farm". The head of the Commission was Dr. Theodor Schieder a rehabilitated former member of the Nazi party. Gesamtausgabe: Das Schicksal der Deutschen in Jugoslawien (1961) Page 131. It took Keyzer eleven months to create a photoproject “Forced labor camp” devoted to Russian prisons. German POWs were impressed into forced labor during and after World War II by the Soviet Union. Historians cite German accounts that cover the employment of German labor by the USSR. The embassy refused to issue new passports and the emigrants were arrested and sent to prison, Gulag camps, or executed. By early 1942 1,031,300 Germans had been banished to Central Asia and Siberia. [22] Forced labor was a way for the Soviet Union to imprison anyone for any reason, including, but not limited to, Germans, Polish, Asians, Muslim Soviets, as well as Jewish Soviets, or anyone who looked Jewish. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. - Volume 8 Issue 2 - Abram Bergson 1. The Soviet labor camp system, later run under the “Gulag” administrative system -- short for “Glavnoe Upravlenie ispravitel’no-trudovykh LAGerei,” or Main Administration of Corrective Labor Camps – was a key feature of Russian life between the 1930s and the 1950s. Pages 33 and 36. The topic of using Germans as forced labor for reparations was first broached at the Tehran conference in 1943, where Soviet premier Joseph Stalin demanded 4,000,000 German workers. The Soviet authorities declared Poland to be non-existent, and all former Polish citizens from the areas annexed by USSR were treated as if they were Soviet citizens. Reichling was an employee of the Federal Statistical Office who was involved in the study of German expulsion statistics since 1953. [7], The Soviets sent about three-quarters of the laborers to the Donets Basin to work in the reconstruction of heavy industry and mines, and about 11% to the Urals' heavy industries. Wages were fixed as of 1917 by the Supreme Counsel of Popular Economy and the work day was to be set to eight hours but a worker and the employer could agree upon overtime to be worked and conditions were laid out for Voluntary work, work that was done on Saturdays and Sundays. [50] The Soviet Union and the western allies employed German POW labor up until 1949. Rhode G. Phasen und Formen der Massenzwangswanderungen in Europa. Repatriation started as early as 1945 and almost all were released by 1950. Labor Force Participation Rate in Russia averaged 66.47 percent from 2000 until 2020, reaching an all time high of 70.30 percent in August of 2016 and a record low of 61.70 percent in February of 2020. Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945-1948. The US Treasury placed two entities that either send or help send North Korean workers to Russia on its sanctions blacklist Thursday for involvement in "forced labor." The figures are rough estimates and not based on an actual enumeration of persons deported and those that died. Law enforcement agencies in Russia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms. [3] Women and children were the exception and specific conditions were laid out for them. It is estimated that 1.6 million died within the Gulags, approximately 800,000 killed by the Soviet Secret Police, and another 1 million dying during the exile process after they had been released from the Gulag. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Still held 12/1949- Persons convicted by Soviet military tribunals and held in MVD prisons in the USSR[18], Thanks to the opening of the Russian archives, the fates of some of these civilians are now known. Bonn 1989 Pages 53–54. Manfred von Ardenne worked on Soviet atomic bomb project and was awarded a Stalin Prize.[49]. [6][8] Stalin viewed these kind of people as enemies of the Party and he wanted them dealt with as enemies. They were returned to the USSR. Persons held in these short-lived camps east of the line were subsequently transferred to NKVD special camps in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany or to the Soviet Union for forced labor[4] By May 1945 the NKVD had selected for deportation to the USSR 66,152 German civilians who were considered suspected Nazi party members and government officials, as well as 89,110 able bodied adults (mostly men) for forced labor. B. Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa./ Bearb. According to data from the Soviet archives, by October 1945 687,300 Germans remained alive in the special settlements,[23] an additional 316,600 Soviet Germans served as labor conscripts during World War II in NKVD labor columns, later informally referred to as "labor army". Mai 1974. [6] Soviet records state that they repatriated 21,061 Polish citizens from labor camps which indicates that not all of the internees were ethnic Germans and some could have been ethnic Poles. With the rise of the Soviet Union, the old Russian farming system was transformed into something more in line with the Soviet doctrine of collectivization. [38], D. Civilians held as POWs — The Soviets classified these persons as POWs and they were held in POW camps, they were ethnic Germans from the Former eastern territories of Germany and Poland. Each day in our conentration camp, I do not remember a day when it was less than 20, 25 people--less than 35--which died from starvation. [2], By the summer of 1944 the Soviet forces had reached the Balkans that had ethnic German minorities. The Tsar and the Russian Empire used both forced exile and forced labor as forms of judicial punishment. [25] According to J. Otto Pohl 65,599 Germans perished in the special settlements, he believes that an additional 176,352 unaccounted for persons "probably died in the labor army". They were held under favorable conditions and most were released by 1948. However, the analysis of enforcement practice shows that this principle remains declarative. The camps were not uniform in the ways they treated and provided for prisoners but, in general, conditions were harsh and could be deadly. The 201,464 surviving internees were citizens of the following nations- Germany 77,692; Romania 61,072; Hungary 29,101; Poland 21,061; Yugoslavia 9,034; Czechoslovakia 2,378; Austria 199; Bulgaria and other countries 927. A. Deported from Eastern Europe to USSR 1945-1950 as reparations labor, Total 600,000. [18] Over time, these came to be more permanent, and, in the 1950s, they were re-organized into "complex brigades". The number of deported was derived by estimating the number of persons sent to the USSR, and was not based on an actual enumeration. The study was published by Central European University Press. Forced labor in Soviet Russia and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at Wählen Sie Ihre Cookie-Einstellungen. A further 10 - 11 million people were either deported or were already in the penal system at the time There are no accurate or official archive records prior to 1929. In addition he listed 182,000 Austrians taken prisoner[51][52] In his revised 2001 edition Krivosheev put the number of German military POWs (Wehrmacht of all nationalities) at 2,733,739 and dead at 381,067 [53] These figures are disputed by sources in the west that give a higher number of POWs captured and estimate losses may be higher than those reported by the USSR. The authors maintain that their figures cover only those deaths caused by violent acts and inhumanities (Unmenschlichkeiten) and do not include post-war deaths due to malnutrition and disease. This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 23:08. [59], Recent disclosures from the Soviet archives, Deportation and forced labor of Soviet Germans during WW2, Pavel Polian-Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR Central European University Press 2003, Pavel Polian-Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR Central European University Press 2003 Pages 293-295, J. Otto Pohl-The Stalinist Penal System: A Statistical History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930-1953 McFarland, 1997, Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa I. Their definition of crimes included confirmed deaths caused by military activity in the 1944-45 campaign as well as deliberate killings and estimated deaths due to forced labor. In the late 1920s, Moscow made a push to mandate collectivization, and in 1930, the Central Committee called for the collectivization of "the huge majority" of peasant farms". These categories of deportees in Reichling's report are not listed above in the Russian archive statistics. and in Siberia beginning in the late 1920s; and, as the number of those arrested in Stalin’s great purges of the 1930s grew into the millions, a network of hundreds of labour camps grew up throughout the Soviet Union. The secret police established many corrective labour camps in the northern Russian S.F.S.R. Bonn: Kulturstiftung der deutschen Vertriebenen. Political prisoners continued to be kept in one of the most famous camps Perm-36 until 1987 when it was closed. Polian's study detailed the Soviet statistics on the employment of German civilian labor during the Stalin era. By David J. Dallin and Boris I. Nicolaevsky. Katorga , a category of punishment reserved for those convicted of the most serious crimes, had many of the features associated with labor-camp imprisonment: confinement, simplified facilities (as opposed to prisons), and forced labor, usually involving hard, unskilled or semi-skilled work. A. Reparations Deportees ("reparationsverschleppte") Ethnic German civilians conscripted for labor in the Soviet Union for damages caused by Germany during the war. // Die Vertriebenen in Westdeutschland. $3.75. The figures are rough estimates and are not based on an actual enumeration of the dead. FILE - Female inmates are being escorted to perform work at a penal colony in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, Dec. 20, 2013. [S]uch bad food that when I came to the concentration camp, I have seen prisoners which have only bones and skin. Spieler, Silke. In 1938, 11,000 people were arrested in Mongolia, most of them lamas. Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union was considered by the Soviet Union to be part of German war reparations for the damage inflicted by Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union during the Axis-Soviet campaigns (1941-1945) of World War II. On April 4, 1912, a strike formed by the laborers of the Lena Gold Field Company turned violent when an army detachment open-fired on the crowd. The prisoners within the Gualgs were forced labor which helped meet the goals of the Five Year Plan, as well as to provide labor for the State run projects such as the Moscow-Volga canal. [42], B. Deported from Yugoslavia for forced labor in the USSR - About 27,000 to 30,000 civilians deported to USSR of whom c. 5,000 died.[43]. The West German government-sponsored Schieder commission during the 1950s documented the population transfer of Germans from East-Central Europe after World War II. Rüdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. (1989). A large camp normally held more than 25,000 prisoners each, a medium size camp held from 5,000 to 25,000 and the smallest camps held less than 5,000 prisoners each. It began before the Gulag and Kolkhoz systems were established, although through these institutions, its scope and severity were increased. Forced labor was used extensively in the Soviet Union as a means of controlling Soviet citizens and foreigners. The author of the study based these figures on the German Red Cross report which is detailed above. The workers were housed in concentration camps under armed guard. Forced labor was instrumental for the Soviet Union, and during the time of industrialization it was a deemed necessary tool by the Bolsheviks, in order to rid the country of internal enemies, while at the same time using that labor to help achieve a stronger socialist union, and that idea was no different during wartime. [54] However, in his Russia's War Richard Overy maintains that according to Rurrian sources 356,000 out of 2,388,000 POWs died in Soviet captivity. Of the 68,000 arrests and 42,000 deaths that resulted, only a third were actually German; the remainder were of other nationalities. The Soviet government proposed the use of German labor as reparations in 1943, and raised the issue at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Labor conditions of the years leading up to the event and the years following could be far from desirable, but in those years laborers maintained t… The report mentioned that ethnic German citizens from pre-war Poland were considered "traitors of the nation" and sentenced to forced labor. [2] In the years that followed, under the communist regime, the government began taking rights and enforcing new policies of forced labor that gave less choice to laborers on not only their choice to work but where they would work as well. . Life in the special settlements was harsh and severe; food was limited and the deported population was governed by strict regulations. Figures do not include "Forced Repatriation" and "Resettlers" Ethnic Germans from the USSR who had been resettled by Germany in Poland during the war. Nazi Germany had used forced labour of people in the occupied territories since the beginning of World War II. Since the fall of the USSR the Soviet archives have been accessible to researchers. All kulaks were assigned to one of three categories: Kolkhozes were typically divided up into "brigades" of 15-30 households. Yugoslavia — 27,000 to 35,000 German civilians were deported to the USSR and that death toll was 4,500 to 5,000. He visited and photographed around 40 facilities of the Krasnoyarsk region that had been parts of GULAG in the past. . Imperial Russia operated a system of remote Siberian forced labor camps as part of its regular judicial system, called katorga. They worked in the aviation industry and the development of submarines. [48] They were not directly involved in the missile program but were only consulted by Soviet engineers. Forced Labor In Soviet Russia | | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. When the Nazis occupied the USSR in the early 1940s, they used millions of Ukrainians, Belarusians and Russians as forced labor. Within the penal system there were different types of camps: prisons, special prisons, special camps, corrective labor colonies, and special purpose camps such as the scientific prison institutes (sharashka), filtration camps and prisoner of war (POW) camps.[11]. von T. Schieder. Stalin began to push for the collectivization of farms, claiming that economies of scale would help alleviate grain shortages, and seeking to extend Soviet control over peasants wealthy enough to own land and hire labor ("kulaks"). While the use of slave labour is criminalised under article 127.2 and article 127.1 mentions slave labour as a type of exploitation as part of the crime of human trafficking, the act of slavery itself is not distinctly criminalised.58 Articles 240 and 241 address recruitment into sex work and pimping.59 In relation to the alleged exploitation of migrant workers from North Korea on the construction site for the St Petersburg stadium for the 2018 S… [20], With the end of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former member states began allowing privatization to various degrees, with some countries disbanding them altogether, and some re-organizing them as different sorts of corporate farms.[21]. Deaths within the Gulag system: Now that the Soviet archives are available for study, it has been determined that there were between 15 and 18 million people held prisoner under Stalin. Today the number of irregular migrants in Russia … [26] During the Stalin era the Soviet Germans continued to be confined to the special settlements under strict supervision, in 1955 they were rehabilitated but were not allowed to return to the European USSR until 1972. "[16] The Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party formalized the decision in a resolution titled "On measures for the elimination of kulak households in districts of comprehensive collectivization" on 30 January 1930. Eugene Davidson "The death and life of Germany: an account of the American occupation". [25] Americans that had come to the Soviet Union seeking work during the Great Depression found themselves pleading the American embassy for passports so that they could return to their home country. The study estimated a total of 600,000 deaths caused by what they call "crimes and inhumanites" in the eyes of West German law, including 200,000 in forced labor in the USSR. 2004/, "Soviet Armed Forces Losses in Wars, Combat Operations and Military Conflicts: A Statistical Study", G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil, The Expulsion of 'German' Communities from Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War,, Aftermath of World War II in the Soviet Union and Russia, World War II prisoners of war held by the Soviet Union, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles containing Russian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, C. "Forced Repatriation" and "Resettlers". [26], The UPV camp system, separate from the Gulag, was established in 1939 to utilize POWs and foreign civilians for labor. [55] [3] In July 1918, the Russian Constitution implemented Obligatory Labor Service which was to begin immediately. By late 1996, the German Red Cross had received from Russia 199,000 records of deported German civilians who had either been repatriated or died in Soviet captivity. On April 4, 1912, a strike formed by the laborers of the Lena Gold Field Company turned violent when an army detachment open-fired on the crowd. She died there on February 26, 1949, 23 years old. [8], Ethnic German civilians interned by USSR - Soviet data from the Russian archives, Source of figures Pavel Polian-Against Their Will[16]. The effects of the Russian Civil War and later miscalculations within the newly founded Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) government of Vladimir Lenin left Joseph Stalin, the new leader of the USSR, with an impending agricultural crisis and a crumbling Russian industrial economy. Since the fall of the USSR the Soviet archives have been accessible to researchers. [27] It eventually included several hundred camps and thousands of auxiliary camps which held millions of foreign prisoners during their years of operation. Hungary — 30,000 to 35,000 German civilians were deported to the USSR and that death toll was 6,000. Women and girls are more at risk than boys and men, and children make up a quarter of people in forced labour. By 1932, 61% of peasant households belonged to Kolkhozes, although the transition was far from smooth—peasants actively resisted in a number of ways, including the slaughter of livestock. Then, in 1919, the Russian Labor Code laid out the exemptions such as the elderly and pregnant women and the requirements of obligatory labor to include that workers would be given the choice to work in their trades, if the option was available. The following is a summary of the deaths estimated in the German Federal Archive Report. In 1969, the Federal West German government ordered a study of expulsion losses to be conducted by the German Federal Archives which was finished in 1974. In August 1941 the Soviet government ordered ethnic Germans to be deported from the European USSR. (Germany (1937 borders) 400,000; Danzig 10,000, Czechoslovakia 30,000; Baltic States 10,000; Hungary 30,000; Romania 80,000; Yugoslavia 40,000. A. Deported from Former eastern territories of Germany and Poland for forced labor in the USSR - Over 400,000 civilians deported to USSR of whom they estimated about 200,000 died. The USSR began deporting ethnic Germans from the Balkans in late 1944, most of the surviving internees had returned by 1950. [39], F. Klaipėda (Memel) residents- Ethnic Germans who remained in Klaipedia after the war. [5] Approximately 20% of the prisoners would be freed each year from the Gulags, but these were not rehabilitated criminals, they were usually prisoners who were too weak to perform duties any longer or were suffering from incurable diseases. Bevolkerungsbilanzen fuer die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. For example, the records of Pauline Gölner reveal that she was born in 1926 in Wolkendorf in Transylvania, was arrested on January 15, 1945 and sent to forced labor in the coal mines of Chanchenkowo (Ukraine). 1-min read. Forced Labor in Kaliningrad Oblast- German civilians interned in the former East Prussia, most of the survivors were released by 1948. Mai 1974. The trade in human beings and the use of slave labour are serious and burning issues which are relevant for Russia at present. [8] This institution was a separate society with its own culture and its own rules. Die Vertreibung der deutschen Bevölkerung aus den Gebieten östlich der Oder-Neisse, Band 1 (1953) – Pages 83 and 87, Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa, Band III, Das Schicksal der Deutschen in Rumänien (1957) Pages 79-80, Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa - Band II: Das Schicksal der Deutschen in Ungarn (1956) Pages 44 and 72, Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa. Forced labor was also included in the final protocol of the Yalta conference in … Migrant workers are targeted because they often don’t speak the language, have few friends, have limited rights and depend on their employers. Reichling's figures for German forced labor were based on his own calculations, his figures are estimates and are not based on an actual enumeration of the dead. The United States alleges North Korea sends its workers abroad in forced labor schemes to earn foreign exchange for the state. Wolfenbattel, 1953–1961, Die Deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. [4] The real function of the Soviet Gulag was the exploitation of human beings, which occurred by working the people to death or near death before discarding them. [44], G. 100,000 deaths in Czechoslovak internment camps. A study of German forced labor and expulsions by the West German researcher Dr. Gerhard Reichling was published by the Kulturstiftung der deutschen Vertriebenen (Foundation of the German Expellees) in 1986. At the same time there was the creation of another, harsher form of forced labor, the Katorga. They were deported into the USSR,[40], G. "Convicted POWs" (Strafgefangene) POWs convicted of war crimes and held in Soviet prisons. [10], Different categories with the Gulags: The Gulag system consisted of over 30,000 camps which were broken down into three different categories dependent upon the number of prisoners held at that camp. Stalin resorted to slave and forced labor in order to provide food and mat… “To love your Motherland means to know it” – V. G. Belinsky . We are especially indebted to the migrants interviewed for their cooperation with the researchers and who frequently gave evidence of severe exploitation. Only a small number of people in Gulags were sent to the katorga, and the katorga was used for those who would have been sentenced to death. In the years following World War II, large numbers of German civilians and captured soldiers were forced into labor by the Allied forces. 1–5. The following is a summary of the figures published by the Schieder commission from 1953 to 1961 for forced labor only. During World War II some of these labor camps were turned into camps where prisoners of war were kept, and forced to work under horrible conditions, resulting in a high mortality rate. 6. Civilian Deaths Listed by German Federal Archives 1974, Source: German Federal Archive, Spieler, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945-1948. [19], There is currently an ongoing research program in collaboration between Russia and Germany:[20], The ethnic German minority in the USSR was considered a security risk by the Soviet government and they were deported during the war in order to prevent their possible collaboration with the Nazi invaders.

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