[131][132] According to a CBS poll, 92% of Panamanian adults supported the U.S. incursion, and 76% wished that U.S. forces had invaded in October during the coup. [104] Furthermore, Noriega had made a deal with his deputy, to the effect that he would step down as military leader in 1987 and allow Díaz Herrera to succeed him. [76] Noriega's new image as an opponent of drug trafficking was symbolized by his being invited as a speaker in 1985 to Harvard University, for a conference on the role of the military in Central America's wars, a speech which received a lot of attention in Panama's pro-government press. [17] Soon after, Noriega's drinking and violence obliged Torrijos to confine him to his quarters for a month. [1] The Supreme Court of the United States refused to hear his appeal in January 2010, and in March declined a petition for a rehearing. [174][175] Noriega was extradited to Panama on December 11, 2011, and incarcerated at El Renacer prison to serve the sentences, totalling 60 years, that he had accumulated in absentia for crimes committed during his rule. [87][88] In January 1991, federal prosecutors filed a financial report indicating that that Noriega had received a total of $322,000 from the United States Army and the CIA over a 31-year period from 1955 to 1986. The trial, lasting from September 1991 to April 1992, ended with Noriega's conviction on most of the charges. [12] It called Noriega the archetype of U.S. intervention in Latin America: "The lawless, vicious leader whom the U.S. cultivated and propped up despite clear and serious flaws. [9] This image contrasted sharply with the impact of a mug shot which was taken of him after his capture, and became a symbol of his fall from power. [43], During negotiations for the Panama Canal treaties, the U.S. government ordered its military intelligence to wiretap Panamanian officials. [105] Díaz Herrera retaliated by making public statements accusing Noriega of rigging the 1984 election, murdering Spadafora, and of trafficking in drugs, as well as of assassinating Torrijos with a bomb on his plane. He was handed a 40-year prison sentence but was released in 2007 after serving 17 years behind bars. [1][178] Noriega died on May 29, 2017, at the age of 83. Several prisoners said that they had been tortured; others stated they had been raped in prison. [126], The U.S. launched its invasion of Panama on December 20, 1989. On Se… There was no immediate information on the cause of death, which occurred late Monday. In a 1962 incident Torrijos helped Noriega avoid legal trouble after a prostitute accused Noriega of beating and raping her. Former Panamanian Dictator Manuel Noriega Dies at 83 ... Randal C. Archibold of the New York Times reports that the cause of Noriega’s death … [22][26] Hersh wrote in 1986 that U.S. intelligence officials suspected that Noriega was selling intelligence to the Cuban government of Fidel Castro;[39] his report received widespread attention. The United States Department of Defense said that the servicemen were traveling unarmed in a private vehicle, and that they attempted to flee the scene only after their vehicle was surrounded by a crowd of civilians and PDF troops. [41] Kempe stated that the U.S. knew of Noriega's involvement in the bombings but decided to turn a blind eye toward them. actions. [26] The move was the largest military action by the U.S. since the Vietnam War, and included more than 27,000 soldiers,[1] as well as 300 aircraft. Although the killing of the marine was the ostensible reason for the invasion, the operation had been planned for months before his death. Noriega himself provided differing dates of birth. [150] After the trial, Noriega appealed this exclusionary ruling by the judge to the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals. Noriega was ousted from power in 1989 by United States troops. While there, he made the acquaintance of Roberto Díaz Herrera, then studying at the Peruvian Police academy, who later became a close ally. [57] The Partido Revolucionario Democrático (Democratic Revolutionary Party, PRD), which had been established by Torrijos and had strong support among military families, was used by Noriega as a political front for the PDF. [122] On December 15, 1989, the PRD-dominated legislature spoke of "a state of war" between the United States and Panama. Noriega and Díaz Herrera picked Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino to be the PRD's candidate, with the intention of keeping him under close control. [188] Dinges writes that though Noriega's regime saw a number of murders and crimes, they were similar in scale to those that occurred at the same time under the authoritarian governments of Guatemala, Chile, Argentina, and El Salvador; these governments never saw the level of condemnation from the U.S. that Noriega's did. [81] Noriega had a working relationship with U.S. [71] A report by the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency stated that Noriega held firm control over drug-related activities and money laundering through a group of close associates within the military. From the 1950s until shortly before the U.S. invasion, Noriega worked with U.S. intelligence agencies. He relied upon military nationalism to maintain his support, and did not espouse a specific social or economic ideology. "[1], Noriega's authoritarian rule of Panama has been described as a dictatorship,[182][183][184][185] while Noriega himself has been referred to as a "strongman". The former military leader of … [39], Many of the operations Noriega benefited from were run by associates such as Floyd Carlton and Cesar Rodríguez. Torrijos became a patron and mentor to Noriega. [108] Spadafora had also informed the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) of some of his findings about Noriega's involvement in drug smuggling. Though his U.S. intelligence handlers were aware of this, no action was taken because of his usefulness to the U.S. [1][120], On February 5, 2012, Noriega was moved to the Hospital Santo Tomás in Panama City because of high blood pressure and a brain hemorrhage. [148], Before receiving his permanent prison assignment, Noriega was placed in the Federal Detention Center, Miami. The district court held that information about the operations in which Noriega had played a part supposedly in return for payment from the U.S. was not relevant to his defense. [1] Soon afterward an army colonel and a few soldiers made an attempt to overthrow Noriega; their poorly planned effort was crushed within a day. On 3 January 1990, he surrendered to the US Army. On Dec. 20, 1989, the United States military invaded Panama, code-named Operation Just Cause, in an effort to oust Panamanian narco-dictator Manuel Noriega from power. The U.S. also regarded Noriega as an ally in its War on Drugs, despite Noriega himself having amassed a personal fortune through drug trafficking operations. [13] Noriega insisted that he had in fact been paid close to $10,000,000, and that he should be allowed to testify about the work he had done for the U.S. government. [78] On one occasion, the PDF supplied weapons to a small band of M-19 fighters who flew to Panama from Cuba, before launching an attack on Colombia's west coast. [189], After Noriega's death, an article in The Atlantic compared him to Castro and Augusto Pinochet, stating that while Castro had been the nemesis of the U.S., and Pinochet had been its ally, Noriega had managed to be both. [18][19] The sitting president, Roberto Chiari, belonged to the Liberal Party, which ordered Torrijos to harass Arias's party members and weaken his election bid. Dinges suggests that the impression among some officials that Noriega made money off of every transaction in the country may have been cultivated by Noriega himself. Noriega began studying in Lima in 1958. [69] No formal criminal investigations were begun, however, with news reports attributing the lack of action to factors including U.S. interest in concluding the Panama Canal treaty, the value of intelligence from Panama, and Panama's support for U.S. foreign policy. Manuel Antonio Noriega was born the son of an accountant and his maid in a poor section of Panama City, Panama, in 1934. [23] Noriega and Torrijos later used their knowledge of the U.S. wiretapping operations to tilt the Panama Canal negotiations in their favor. [98] Noriega was widely believed to be responsible for the murder, and according to Koster and Sánchez, the U.S. had intelligence implicating Noriega. Noriega, who had been kept under close supervision at a Panama hospital, was 83-years old at the time of his death. [169] In addition, the court ordered the seizure of €2.3 million (approximately U.S. $3.6 million) that had long been frozen in Noriega's French bank accounts. [26][63] After brazenly manipulating the results, the government announced that Barletta had won by a slim margin of 1,713 votes. [52] During this period Noriega became a full colonel and the National Guard's chief of staff, effectively the second-highest rank in the country. General Manuel Antonio Noriega, former military leader of Panama, has died, Panama's president said on Twitter. [114] The Alianza Democrática de Oposición Cívica (Democratic Alliance of Civic Opposition), an opposition coalition, nominated Guillermo Endara, a member of Arias' Panameñista Party, and two other prominent oppositionists, Ricardo Arias Calderón and Guillermo Ford, as vice-presidential candidates. [120] Finally, Noriega received a third 20-year sentence in 1996 for his role in the death of nine military officers supporting Giroldi; the group had been executed in a hangar at the Albrook air base after the coup attempt, in an incident that came to be known as the massacre of Albrook. [75] He also ordered a crackdown on money laundering by Colombian cartel figures Jorge Ochoa and Gilberto Rodríguez Orejuela. First Lieutenant Robert Paz of the United States Marine Corps was shot and killed in the incident. [34] This evidence included the testimony of an arrested boat courier, and of a drug smuggler arrested in New York. [26] In February 1969, Torrijos's men seized Martínez and exiled him to Miami giving Torrijos control of the country. [47] Torrijos sought for himself the same aura of "democratic respectability" that the Sandinista rebels had in Nicaragua, and so abandoned the title of "Maximum Leader" he had taken in 1972, promising that elections would be held in 1984. In 1992, Noriega was found guilty on eight counts of drug trafficking, racketeering, and money laundering, marking the first time in history that a U.S. jury convicted a foreign leader of criminal charges. After Noriega was imprisoned in France, Panama asked the French government to extradite Noriega so he could face trial for human rights violations in Panama. Within U.S. government circles contradictory images abounded; Noriega was seen as a CIA spy, a drug trafficker, a nationalist supporting Torrijos, an ally of Cuba, and an ally of Oliver North and the Contras. [18] Despite performing poorly in his classes, he received a promotion to first lieutenant in 1966, and Torrijos found him a job as an intelligence officer in the "North Zone" of the National Guard. [135], Noriega received several warnings about the invasion from individuals within his government; though he initially disbelieved them, they grew more frequent as the invasion drew near, eventually convincing Noriega to go on the run. [60] Noriega's period in power saw significant capital flight from Panama; according to Kempe, this was at least in part because wealthy individuals worried their wealth would be seized by Noriega's administration. [120] Though Noriega was tried in absentia, a judge traveled to the US to question him in December 1993. The French government had previously stated that extradition would not happen before the case in France had run its course. The hemorrhage was caused shortly after a surgery was performed on Noriega to remove a benign tumor from his brain. Díaz Herrera and Noriega became both friends and rivals for Torrijos's favor. [1] His bravado during public speeches was remarked upon by commentators; for instance, after his indictment in the U.S., he made a public speech while brandishing a machete, and declaimed "Not one step back! He remained in the hospital for four days before being returned to prison. Born in Panama City to a poor mestizo family, Noriega studied at the Chorrillos Military School in Lima and at the School of the Americas. Having threatened to flee to the countryside and lead guerrilla warfare if not given refuge, he instead turned over the majority of his weapons, and requested sanctuary from Archbishop José Sebastián Laboa, the papal nuncio. The U.S. turned its back on Noriega especially after his top political opponent was killed in 1985 and he joined hands with drug traffickers. "The death of Manuel A Noriega closes a chapter in our history; his daughters and relatives deserve a funeral in peace," Panamanian President Juan Carlos Varela tweeted in Spanish. Posted to Colón, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in September 1962. [9] His commanding officer in Colón was Omar Torrijos, then a major in the National Guard. He was placed in a medically induced coma after suffering severe brain hemorrhaging during the surgery, his attorney told CNN affiliate TV Panama … [7][8] During his time in the Instituto Nacional he met his older half-brother Luis Carlos Noriega Hurtado, a socialist activist and also a student at the school: Manuel had not previously met his siblings. [116] As an exit poll made it clear that the opposition slate was winning by a wide margin, reports of missing tally sheets and seizures of ballot boxes by the PDF soon emerged. Noriega appealed his extradition because he claimed France would not honor his legal status as a prisoner of war. [106] Without the support of the U.S., Panama defaulted on its international debt, and that year the country's economy shrunk by 20%. [2][3][4] His date of birth is generally given as February 11, 1934, but is a matter of uncertainty. Noriega permitted these activities despite the Panama Canal treaties restricting the use of the U.S. bases to protecting the canal. [36], During the early 1970s, Noriega's relationship with the U.S. intelligence services was regularized. During his tenure, he exiled 1,300 Panamanians whom he viewed as threats to the government. The source was not authorised to be quoted by name. It ruled that "the tendency of such evidence to confuse the issues before the jury substantially outweighed any probative value it might have had. [81][83] Noriega has been reported to have played a role in the Iran–Contra affair in the mid-1980s, in which the proceeds of arms sales to Iran were smuggled to support the Contras. In 1988, Noriega was indicted by federal grand juries in Miami and Tampa on charges of racketeering, drug smuggling, and money laundering. Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno was born in Panama City, into a relatively poor mestizo, or mixed-race, family with Native American, African, and Spanish heritage. [61], Noriega took control of most major newspapers by either buying a controlling stake in them or forcing them to shut down. [39], For many years Noriega acted as a conduit for U.S. support, including funds and weapons, to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua. He was 83. On 20 December 1989, the United States invaded Panama and launched “Operation Just Cause” to oust Noriega. There was no immediate information on the cause of death, which occurred late Monday. [160], Noriega was tried in absentia in Panama for crimes committed during his rule. [23] Later, as the de facto leader of Panama, Noriega maintained a close relationship with the School of the Americas, partly due to the school's presence in Panama. His mother, whose family name was Moreno, died of tuberculosis when he was still a child, and Noriega was brought up by a godmother[1][2][3] in a one-room apartment in the slum area of Terraplén. [117] The next day, Endara, Arias Calderón, and Ford rolled through the old part of the capital in a triumphant motorcade, only to be intercepted by a detachment of Noriega's paramilitary Dignity Battalions. [140] On the fifth day of the invasion, Noriega and four others took sanctuary in the Apostolic Nunciature, the Holy See's embassy in Panama. [1] Noriega's direct involvement in moving weapons and drugs also declined in the early 1980s. He also kept files on several officials within the military, the government, and the judiciary, allowing him to blackmail them later. In the afternoon of the day after the election, the Catholic bishops conference announced that a quick count of public tallies at polling centers showed the opposition slate winning 3–1. [1] Though the U.S. considered not recognizing Delvalle as president, the state department decided against it, as it would have amounted to breaking relations with Noriega. [80], Bush, now U.S. vice president, met again with Noriega in December 1983 to discuss support for the Contras. [1][127] The U.S. government reported between 202 and 250 civilian deaths; Americas Watch estimated 300 civilian deaths; and the United Nations estimated 500 civilian deaths. [170][171] After Noriega was imprisoned in France, Panama asked the French government to extradite Noriega so he could face trial for human rights violations in Panama. [1][15] Sieiro had been a school teacher, and Noriega a member of the National Guard. In 1999, the Panamanian government had sought the extradition of Noriega from the U.S. to face murder charges in Panama because he had been found guilty in absentia in 1995 and sentenced to 20 years in prison. [1][118][119][120] The rebels were captured and taken to a military base outside Panama City, where they were tortured and then executed. According to Dinges, by this point had left his undisciplined past behind him. [6] Both his parents were dead by the time he was five years old. The government also harassed, intimidated, or exiled individual journalists and editors. After their return, the family was criticized for visiting a leader the U.S. was in conflict with. [186][187] A 2017 obituary from the BBC stated that Noriega "was an opportunist who used his close relationship with the United States to boost his own power in Panama and to cover up the illegal activities for which he was eventually convicted". He was sentenced to 40 years in prison and ultimately served 17 years after a reduction in his sentence and time off for good behavior. Noriega responded "And what does one do with a dog that has rabies? Read: Is Donald Trump A Dictator? Mr. Noriega died around 11 p.m. at Santo Tomás Hospital, an employee there confirmed. [25], Torrijos retained power as a military ruler until 1981: during this time he negotiated the Torrijos–Carter Treaties with U.S. President Jimmy Carter, which ensured that control over the Panama Canal would pass to Panama in 1999. [9][14], Noriega married Felicidad Sieiro in the late 1960s, and the couple had three daughters: Lorena; Sandra; and Thays. However, upon knowing his political rival has higher chances of coming to power, Noriega influenced the election to make sure the candidate he favored was elected. Woodward and Hersh's reputations made certain that the stories were taken seriously. Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (Spanish pronunciation: [maˈnwel noˈɾjeɣa]; February 11, 1934 – May 29, 2017)[a] was a Panamanian politician and military officer who was the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989. On 10 July 1992, the US Court sentenced him to 40 years in prison. The cause of death was not announced but Noriega had been in intensive care at a hospital for months after complications from surgery to remove a benign brain tumor. McGrath. His new superior officer Boris Martínez [es] was a fervent anti-communist, and enforced strict discipline on Noriega. Panamanian President Juan Carlos Varela announced the death Tuesday morning on Twitter, saying that the passing closes a chapter in the country’s history. Noriega became chief of military intelligence in Torrijos's government, and after Torrijos's death in 1981, consolidated power to become Panama's de facto ruler in 1983. While there is still no official known cause of death, Noriega has been in intensive care due to a brain hemorrhage following a May 7th surgery to remove a benign tumor. Gallego's body is reported to have been thrown from a helicopter into the sea. Noriega, who filed the suit while in prison for murder, claimed he was portrayed as "a kidnapper, murderer and enemy of the state". The following year, Noriega backed the country’s first free presidential election in 16 years. [151] Noriega was incarcerated in the Federal Correctional Institution, Miami. Three incidents in particular occurred very near the time of the invasion, and were mentioned by Bush as a reason for the invasion. [133] Activist Barbara Trent disputed this finding, saying in a 1992 Academy Award-winning documentary The Panama Deception that the Panamanian surveys were completed in wealthy, English-speaking neighborhoods in Panama City, among Panamanians most likely to support U.S. PANAMA CITY (AP) — Former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega has died, a source close to his family said. Reports have suggested that he continued to pass intelligence to the U.S. during this period, about the plantation workers' activities. "[1] The attitude of machismo that Noriega adopted has been described as a reaction to the persecution which his half-brother Luis faced as an openly homosexual man in Panama and Peru. [27], The CIA was aware that Noriega was selling intelligence on the U.S. to Cuba while he was working for it. [144] The trial was delayed until September 1991 over whether Noriega could be tried after his detention as a prisoner of war, the admissibility of evidence and witnesses, and how to pay for Noriega's legal defense. [74] Beginning in 1984 Noriega appeared to reduce the scale of his operations, and even ordered a raid against a cocaine factory in the interior of Panama, a raid which he then emphasized as evidence of his cooperation with the U.S. in their fight against drugs. Noriega offered to assassinate or sabotage Sandinista leaders in return for North helping Noriega improve his image with the U.S. The former US government asset on the CIA’s payroll was wanted on several drug-trafficking charges and suspected of rigging the 1989 Panamanian presidential election. Panama's President Juan Carlos Varela announced Noriega's death via Twitter. Manuel Noriega was a Panamanian general and dictator who ruled the Central American nation from 1983 to 1990. [45] Noriega's drug-related activities came to the U.S. government's attention once again during the ratification process for the Panama Canal treaties, but were once again downplayed by the U.S. intelligence services in order to get the treaty ratified by the U.S. [9][12] A $10.70 payment in 1955 was the first he received from the U.S.[13], Noriega intended to become a doctor, but was unable to secure a place in the University of Panama's medical school. He was replaced by Vice President Eric Arturo Delvalle. He had longstanding ties to United States intelligence agencies before the U.S. invasion of Panama removed him from power. Her family, of Basque heritage, was reported to have been unhappy with the marriage. When the 1984–1989 presidential term expired, Noriega named a longtime associate, Francisco Rodríguez, acting president. [93] In September 1985 he accused Noriega of having connections to drug trafficking and announced his intent to expose him. Upon his return to Panama, however, he was forced to resign after a confrontation with Noriega. [84][85] Around that same time, John Dinges, another biographer of Noriega, said there were indications that various US sources paid Noriega for his assistance on a variety of projects, but he could find no one willing to confirm persistent reports that he received a $200,000 per year stipend from the CIA. [11] During his time in the socialist youth group, Noriega took part in protests and authored articles criticizing the U.S. presence in Panama. The year of Noriega's birth is generally given as 1934, but is a matter of uncertainty. [120] Noriega was also prosecuted over the 1968 disappearances of Luis Antonio Quirós and Everett Clayton Kimble Guerra in Chiriquí, and the 1971 death of Heliodoro Portugal. Noriega is survived by his wife Felicidad and daughters Lorena, Thays and Sandra. [168] On July 7, 2010, Noriega was convicted by the 11th chamber of the Tribunal Correctionnel de Paris and sentenced to seven years in jail. The U.S. recognized Endara as the new president. Throughout the 1970s and the 1980s Noriega was able to manipulate U.S. policy toward his country, while skillfully accumulating near-absolute power in Panama,” the subcommittee concluded at the time. [138] The last two days of his flight were spent partly with his ally Jorge Krupnick, an arms dealer also wanted by the U.S.[139] Kempe reported that Noriega considered seeking sanctuary in the Cuban or Nicaraguan embassies, but both buildings were surrounded by U.S. [22] The U.S. accepted Barletta's election, and signalled a willingness to cooperate with him, despite being aware of the flaws in the election process. No official cause was immediately given. [12] Similarly, authors Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St-Clair stated that despite Noriega's overthrow, Panama's importance in the illegal drug trade continued to grow. [161] Noriega's lawyers claimed the La Santé Prison, at which he was held, was unfit for a man of his age and rank; the French government refused to grant him prisoner of war status, which he had had in the United States. [18] The mistreatment of Arias's supporters sparked public outrage, and led to Noriega being suspended for ten days, an item of information that was picked up by the U.S. intelligence services. Noriega’s Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) were promptly crushed, forcing the dictator to seek asylum with… [72] American Steven Kalish also began a large scale business selling drugs, laundering money and selling hardware to the Panamanian military for considerable profits with Noriega's assistance. [73] Dinges writes that at the time of the 1984 election, Kalish was preparing to ship a load of marijuana worth U.S. $1.4 million through Panama, for which Noriega had agreed to provide false Panamanian customs stamps to help it avoid scrutiny in the U.S.; Noriega was to be paid $1 million for this exercise. Via History.com The United States invades Panama in an attempt to overthrow military dictator Manuel Noriega, who had been indicted in the United States on drug trafficking charges and was accused of suppressing democracy in Panama and endangering U.S. nationals. [112] Also in 1988, Noriega was visited by Sarah York, a school girl from Negaunee, Michigan who had written Noriega a letter, and had later been invited by him to visit Panama with her family. A later investigation by the aircraft manufacturer stated it was an accident; Noriega's authority over the government investigation led to speculation about his involvement. Though no assassination attempt was made, the other ploys may have been tried in the early 1970s, according to Dinges. [27] When Arias's supporters launched a guerrilla uprising in his home province, Noriega as the head of intelligence played an important role in putting it down within a year. A coup was launched in his absence, in which Noriega's loyalty allowed Torrijos to hang on to power, greatly enhancing Torrijos's image. [39] On June 12, 1986, investigative journalist Seymour Hersh published an article in The New York Times describing Noriega's involvement in drug smuggling and money laundering. "[99] Spadafora's murder badly damaged Noriega's image, both within and outside Panama, and was among the reasons for the U.S. beginning to view Noriega as a liability rather than an asset, despite his ongoing support for U.S. interventions elsewhere. On the day of Spadafora's arrest, the U.S. National Security Agency monitored a telephone conversation between Noriega and Luis Córdoba, the military commander in Chiriquí province where Spadafora was arrested. Later that month Noriega's attorney stated that he would travel to France and try to arrange a deal with the French government. After this, he was transferred back to Panama and jailed for crimes committed during the time he was in power. [26][52], Rather than become president, Noriega preferred to remain behind the scenes, and avoid the public scrutiny that came with the post. [28] Historian Javier Galván writes that Torrijos's relationship with Noriega was symbiotic; Torrijos provided the political acumen, while Noriega enforced his unpopular decisions with force, when necessary. [6] He returned to Panama and joined the Panama National Guard. Noriega was known for his complicated relationship with the U.S., being described as being its ally and nemesis at the same time. [1][82] In June 1985 North met with Noriega in Panama and Noriega agreed to train Contra soldiers in Panama for an invasion of Nicaragua in 1986. General Manuel Antonio Noriega, the former military leader of Panama, has died aged 83, officials have announced. [14] He was described as doing much of Torrijos's "dirty work". "[148] One of the witnesses in the trial was Carlton, who had previously flown shipments of drugs for Noriega. [129] Casualties among the Panamanian forces were much higher; between 300 and 845. Noriega was repeatedly unfaithful to his wife, who at one point expressed a desire for a divorce, though she changed her mind later. [92] This included a lengthy conversation with Carlton in mid-1985 after his drug operations had collapsed due to conflicts over a missing shipment, and he had received negative publicity in the Panamanian press. [32] He also made an effort during this period to portray Panama as a hub of enforcement against drug smuggling, possibly as a result of pressure from Torrijos. Former Panama dictator Manuel Noriega gives an address in 1988 (AFP) Former Panama dictator Manuel Noriega has died, aged 83.

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